Departments

América del Sur

América del Sur: CYP2C8 Bravo-Villalta HV, Yamamoto K, Nakamura K, Bayá A, Horiuchi R. A novel intronic mutation that may affect genotyping result of CYP2C8 by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) is strongly associated with CYP2C8*3 in a South American population. J Hum Genet. 2007; 52: 195-199. Martis S, Peter I, Hulot JS,…

América Central

América Central: CYP2B6 Arenaz I, Vicente J, Fanlo A, Vásquez P, Medina JC, Conde B, González-Andrade F, Sinués B. Haplotype structure and allele frequencies of CYP2B6 in Spaniards and Central Americans. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Apr;24(2):247-53. CYP3A4 Sinues B, Vicente J, Fanlo A, Vasquez P, Medina JC, Mayayo E, Conde B, Arenaz I, Martinez-Jarreta B….

Venezuela

Venezuela: CYP2D6 Chiurillo MA, Grimán P,Morán Y, Camargo ME, Ramírez JL. 2009. Analysis of CYP2D6 gene variation in Venezuelan population: Implications for forensic toxicology. Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series 2: 483–484. NO PUBMED Griman P, Morán Y, Carmargo M, Chiurillo MA. Characterization of cytochrome CYP2D6 allele variants in the population of the Central-Western region…

Uruguay

Uruguay: CYP2D6 Estevez F, Giusti M, Parrillo S, Oxandabarat J. Dextromethorphan O-demethylation polymorphism in the Uruguayan population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1997;52(5):417-8.  

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico: CYP2C9 Villagra D, Duconge J, Windemuth A, Cadilla CL, Kocherla M, Gorowski K, Bogaard K, Renta JY, Cruz IA, Mirabal S, Seip RL, Ruaño G. CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes in Puerto Ricans: A case for admixture-matching in clinical pharmacogenetic studies. Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Sep 6;411(17-18):1306-11. CYP2C19 Duconge J, Cadilla CL, Renta JY,…

Portugal

Portugal: CYP2D6 Correia C, Santos P, Coutinho AM, Vicente AM. Characterization of pharmacogenetically relevant CYP2D6 and ABCB1 gene polymorphisms in a Portuguese population sample. Cell Biochem Funct. 2009 Jun;27(4):251-5. CYP2C8 Cavaco I, Piedade R, Gil JP, Ribeiro V. CYP2C8 polymorphism among the Portuguese. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(2):168-70. ABSTRACT; NO PDF CYP2C9 Branco CC, Pereirinha…

Paraguay

Paraguay: CYP2D6 Bailliet G, Santos MR, Alfaro EL, Dipierri JE, Demarchi DA, Carnese FR, Bianchi NO. Allele and genotype frequencies of metabolic genes in Native Americans from Argentina and Paraguay. Mutat Res. 2007 Mar 5;627(2):171-7. HLA Benitez O, Busson M, Charron D, Loiseau P. HLA polymorphism in a Guarani-Indian population from Paraguay and its usefulness…

Panamá

Panamá: CYP2D6 Jorge LF, Eichelbaum M, Griese EU, Inaba T, Arias TD. Comparative evolutionary pharmacogenetics of CYP2D6 in Ngawbe and Embera Amerindians of Panama and Colombia: role of selection versus drift in world populations. Pharmacogenetics. 1999 Apr;9(2):217-28.ABSTRACT; NO PDF Jorge LF, Arias TD, Inaba T, Jackson PR. Unimodal distribution of the metabolic ratio for debrisoquine…

Nicaragua

Nicaragua: CYP2D6 Agúndez JA, Ramirez R, Hernandez M, Llerena A, Benítez J. Molecular heterogeneity at the CYP2D gene locus in Nicaraguans: impact of gene-flow from Europe. Pharmacogenetics. 1997 Aug;7(4):337-40.ABSTRACT; NO PDF Llerena A, Dorado P, Ramírez R, González I, Alvarez M, Peñas-Lledó EM, Pérez B, Calzadilla LR. CYP2D6 genotype and debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotype in Cubans…

México

México: CYP2D6 López M, Guerrero J, Jung-Cook H, Alonso ME. CYP2D6 genotype and phenotype determination in a Mexican Mestizo population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;61(10):749-54. Sosa-Macías M, Elizondo G, Flores-Pérez C, Flores-Pérez J, Bradley-Alvarez F, Alanis-Bañuelos RE, Lares-Asseff I. CYP2D6 genotype and phenotype in Amerindians of Tepehuano origin and Mestizos of Durango, Mexico. J…

España

España: CYP2D6 Benítez J, LLerena A, Cobaleda J. Debrisoquin oxidation polymorphism in a Spanish population. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 Jul;44(1):74-7. Henthorn TK, Benitez J, Avram MJ, Martinez C, Llerena A, Cobaleda J, Krejcie TC, Gibbons RD. Assessment of the debrisoquin and dextromethorphan phenotyping tests by gaussian mixture distributions analysis. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 Mar;45(3):328-33. Menoyo…

El Salvador

El Salvador: CYP3A4 Sinues B, Vicente J, Fanlo A, Vasquez P, Medina JC, Mayayo E, Conde B, Arenaz I, Martinez-Jarreta B. CYP3A5*3 and CYP3A4*1B allele distribution and genotype combinations: differences between Spaniards and Central Americans. CYP3A5 Sinues B, Vicente J, Fanlo A, Vasquez P, Medina JC, Mayayo E, Conde B, Arenaz I, Martinez-Jarreta B. CYP3A5*3…

EE.UU. (Mexicanos-Americanos)

EE.UU. (Mexicanos-Americanos): CYP2D6 Casner PR. The effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on dextromethorphan metabolism in Mexican Americans. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Nov;45(11):1230-5. Luo HR, Gaedigk A, Aloumanis V, Wan YJ. Identification of CYP2D6 impaired functional alleles in Mexican Americans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;61(11):797-802. Mendoza R, Wan YJ, Poland RE, Smith M, Zheng Y, Berman…

Ecuador

Ecuador: CYP2D6 Dorado P, Heras N, Machín E, Hernández F, Teran E, Llerena A. CYP2D6 genotype and dextromethorphan hydroxylation phenotype in an Ecuadorian population. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May;68(5):637-44.  CYP2C9 Dorado P, Beltrán LJ, Machín E, Peñas-Lledó EM, Terán E, Llerena A; CEIBA.FP Consortium of the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics RIBEF. Losartan…

Cuba

Cuba: CYP2D6 Llerena A, Dorado P, Ramírez R, González I, Alvarez M, Peñas-Lledó EM, Pérez B, Calzadilla LR. CYP2D6 genotype and debrisoquine hydroxylation phenotype in Cubans and Nicaraguans. Pharmacogenomics J. 2012 Apr;12(2):176-83. González I, Peñas-Lledó EM, Pérez B, Dorado P, Alvarez M, LLerena A. Relation between CYP2D6 phenotype and genotype and personality in healthy volunteers….

Costa Rica

Costa Rica: CYP2D6 Datos preliminares no publicados (datos de poblaciones indígenas del Dr. Ramiro Barrantes, Dr. Adrián LLerena, Carolina Céspedes Garro MSc) Jorge LF, Arias TD. [Human biodiversity and its effects on the pharmacological variability: CYP2D6 and NAT2 enzymes in Amerind populations of Panama, Colombia and Costa Rica]. Rev Med Panama. 1995 Sep;20(3):98-107. CYP1A2 Cornelis…

Colombia

Colombia: CYP2D6 Isaza CA, Henao J, López AM, Cacabelos R. Isolation, sequence and genotyping of the drug metabolizer CYP2D6 gene in the Colombian population. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Nov;22(9):695-705. ABSTRACT; NO PDF Jorge LF, Eichelbaum M, Griese EU, Inaba T, Arias TD. Comparative evolutionary pharmacogenetics of CYP2D6 in Ngawbe and Embera Amerindians of…

Chile

Chile: CYP2D6 Muñoz S, Vollrath V, Vallejos MP, Miquel JF, Covarrubias C, Raddatz A, Chianale J. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 in the South-Amerindian population of Chile. Pharmacogenetics. 1998 Aug;8(4):343-51.ABSTRACT; NO PDF Roco A, Quiñones L, Agúndez JA, García-Martín E, Squicciarini V, Miranda C, Garay J, Farfán N, Saavedra I, Cáceres D, Ibarra…

Bolivia

Bolivia: CYP2C9 Bravo-Villalta HV, Yamamoto K, Nakamura K, Bayá A, Okada Y, Horiuchi R. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in a Bolivian population: an investigative and comparative study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 May;61(3):179-84. CYP2C19 Bravo-Villalta HV, Yamamoto K, Nakamura K, Bayá A, Okada Y, Horiuchi R. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in…

Brasil

Brasil: CYP2D6 Silveira Vda S, Canalle R, Scrideli CA, Queiroz RG, Tone LG. Polymorphisms in genes encoding drugs and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in a Brazilian population. Biomarkers. 2009 Mar;14(2):111-7. Maciel ME, Oliveira FK, Propst GB, da Graça Bicalho M, Cavalli IJ, Ribeiro EM. Population analysis of xenobiotic metabolizing genes in South Brazilian Euro and Afro-descendants….

Argentina

Argentina CYP2D6 Bailliet G, Santos MR, Alfaro EL, Dipierri JE, Demarchi DA, Carnese FR, Bianchi NO. Allele and genotype frequencies of metabolic genes in Native Americans from Argentina and Paraguay. Mutat Res. 2007 Mar 5;627(2):171-7. Lavandera JV, Parera VE, Batlle A, Buzaleh AM. CYP2D6 polymorphisms in patients with porphyrias. Mol Med. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(9-10):259-63. CYP2C9 Scibona…

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